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Diabetes - symptoms, causes and treatment

Diabetes - symptoms, causes and treatment



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Diabetes mellitus

At Diabetes mellitus, often referred to as diabetes, is a pathological disorder of the sugar metabolism in which the blood sugar level is permanently increased. This condition slowly leads to permanent damage to various organs and blood vessels. Diabetes is spreading faster and faster in Germany. Around every tenth person is affected in this country. Over 90 percent of sufferers have Type 2 diabetes. Many sufferers do not even know that they suffer from the sugar metabolism disorder - the number of unreported cases is high.

Diabetes: A Brief Overview

Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases that affect blood sugar. Even though the causes of the different types of illness are different, they all lead to a disturbance in the sugar balance in the body, which causes long-term and serious health problems. Here is a brief overview of the clinical picture:

  • Types of diabetes: The most common types are type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes (gestational diabetes). In addition, there are some rare forms such as MODY (Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young), type 3c diabetes or Cushing's syndrome.
  • Diabetes symptoms: The intensity and occurrence of the symptoms can vary with the type of diabetes present. Typical symptoms include increased thirst, frequent urination, extreme hunger, chronic fatigue, itching, dry skin, weakness, irritability, blurred vision, slowly healing wounds and frequent infectious diseases.
  • Type 1 diabetes cause: The immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas for unknown reasons and destroys them. As a result, too little or no insulin is produced and the sugar in the blood cannot be transported to the cells. Genetic vulnerability and environmental factors are believed to be the trigger.
  • Type 2 diabetes cause: In this form, the cells become increasingly resistant to the effects of insulin. As a result, the pancreas can no longer produce enough insulin to overcome resistance. The sugar consequently accumulates in the blood. The exact causes are also unclear here. Obesity, lack of exercise and high blood pressure are strongly associated with the occurrence of type 2 diabetes.
  • Gestational diabetes cause: Placenta hormones make cells more resistant to insulin during pregnancy. If the pancreas cannot compensate for this with increased insulin production, gestational diabetes develops, which often disappears after pregnancy. If left untreated, however, this form can pose a risk to the mother and unborn child.
  • Secondary diseases: Diabetes can lead to long-term damage and complications. The longer the illness and the more uncontrolled the blood sugar level, the higher the risk of heart disease, nerve damage, digestive problems, erectile dysfunction, kidney damage, eye damage, blood circulation problems on the feet, skin diseases, hearing problems, dementia and depression.
  • treatment: Monitoring blood sugar and injecting insulin are central elements of diabetes therapy. Depending on the type, oral medication can also be used. In addition, achieving and maintaining a healthy weight, an appropriate diet, and regular physical activity can help control the disease. These measures are also the most important prevention to protect yourself against diabetes.

Definition

The term Diabetes mellitus comes from the Greek and means something like "honey-sweet flow", an allusion to the main symptom of diabetes: the sugar contained in the urine. Diabetes mellitus is a term used to describe various forms of glucose metabolism disorder. Diabetes can be caused by either insulin deficiency or insulin resistance, or both.

The pancreas produces the hormone insulin in its beta cells in the Langerhans Islands. This mediates the transport of dextrose (glucose) into the cells from where it is used to generate energy (glycolysis). Insulin causes the glucose uptake in the body cells for energy generation and storage in the form of glycogen in the liver and muscle cells. In diabetes, insulin production is disrupted and glucose cannot be absorbed into the cells. At the same time, there is no inhibition of new sugar formation in the liver. The glucose remains in the blood, which causes an increase in blood sugar.

If the blood sugar level is permanently increased, this damages the blood vessels, which in turn can lead to complications. These include myocardial infarction, stroke, poor circulation in the legs and feet, changes in the retina, disorders of kidney function and erectile dysfunction. The nerves are also damaged by excessive blood sugar, which can cause numbness and feeling disorders. In order to prevent such ailments, a lifelong and careful adjustment of blood sugar is essential. There are different types of diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is also known as juvenile diabetes or insulin dependent (IDDM) because it manifests itself in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood and those affected have to take insulin throughout their lives.

The cause is most likely an autoimmune antibody process in which the body's immune system destroys the beta cells of the pancreas. This results in a lack of insulin in the body. The blood sugar can no longer be properly transported to the cells and accumulates in the blood.

Type 2 diabetes

Over 90 percent of all diabetics suffer from type 2 diabetes. This form is also known as non-insulin dependent (NIDDM) or as adult diabetes because it previously mainly affected older people. In the meantime, those affected are getting younger and younger. People from the age of 40 are mainly affected. This type belongs to the so-called metabolic syndrome. With him, the body's own insulin production is maintained, initially even increased.

Overweight, lack of exercise and poor nutrition slow down the breakdown of glucose. The insulin release (insulin secretion) is disturbed, whereby the supply of rapidly absorbable carbohydrates is often added. This increases the insulin concentration in the blood, at the same time the number of insulin receptors and thus the insulin sensitivity of the target cells decrease. This is called insulin resistance. With increasing resistance, less and less glucose reaches the cells. Instead, the sugar remains in the blood and accumulates there.

[GList slug = ”10 tips to protect against diabetes”]

Gestational diabetes

This form of diabetes develops in around four percent of pregnant women in the last third of pregnancy and usually normalizes after childbirth. However, there is an increased residual risk of developing diabetes mellitus in the mother. It is caused by placenta hormones that make cells more resistant to insulin during pregnancy. The pregnant woman usually responds to this with increased insulin production. For some women, this is not enough and the blood sugar cannot be adequately transported to the cells. If left untreated, this can pose a health risk for both mother and child. The child is usually born through operative delivery and often has a significantly increased birth weight of over 4500 grams (tall stature / macrosomy). Shortness of breath syndromes, hypoglycaemia and jaundice (jaundice) in the newborn are not uncommon.

Secondary diabetes

In this form, diabetes develops due to previous diseases such as pancreatic diseases (e.g. pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer), diseases with increased production of hormones that counteract insulin (M. Cushing, acromegaly), kidney insufficiency, or by taking drugs such as corticosteroids or diuretics of the benzothiadiazine type.

Diabetes: symptoms

The symptoms of diabetes vary depending on how high your blood sugar is. Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes can also be symptom-free for a long time. In type 1 diabetes, the symptoms are usually faster and more severe. Some common signs and symptoms are:

  • strong thirst,
  • frequent urination,
  • increased feeling of hunger,
  • inexplicable weight loss,
  • Symptoms of fatigue and weakness,
  • increased irritability,
  • blurred vision,
  • Wounds heal more slowly,
  • Absence of menstruation (amenorrhea),
  • Erectile dysfunction,
  • weakened immune defense and therefore frequent infections,
  • increased infections on the gums, skin and vaginal tract.

Type 1 diabetes: symptoms

Type 1 suddenly appears. There is an increase in urine output, and those affected usually drink more to compensate for the loss of fluid. With the increasing metabolic disorder nausea and weakness go hand in hand up to consciousness disturbances. Diabetes mellitus type 1 sufferers are often quite slim despite eating a lot.

Type 2 diabetes: symptoms

Type 2 develops slowly and is often only recognized late. General symptoms such as weakness and reduced performance in combination with fungal skin infections, itching, visual disturbances and recurrent urinary tract infections (e.g. cystitis) are possible consequences. In addition, those affected usually have fat metabolism disorders, high blood pressure (hypertension) and overweight (obesity). In comparison to type 1 diabetes, the characteristic symptoms such as thirst or urinary problems or increased urine output (polyuria) only appear later.

[GList slug = "10 signs of diabetes"]

Diabetes: diagnosis

The diagnosis of type 1 can be made relatively easily on the basis of the elevated blood sugar level in the fasted state. In the case of type 2, on the other hand, the disease has often existed for years at the time of diagnosis, so that it is often only diagnosed on the basis of the secondary diseases.

Diagnostics are a little more complicated because the fasting blood sugar level is usually close to normal. Blood glucose tests, urine laboratory tests and the oral glucose tolerance test are used to confirm the suspected diagnosis. In addition, the determination of blood fat, liver, uric acid, creatine and creatinine clearance as well as an examination of the urine for microalbumin, a resting and a stress ECG and an ultrasound examination (sonography) of the upper abdomen are required. In addition, ketones in the urine can indicate diabetes.

Blood sugar test

A rapid blood glucose test can be used to determine the patient's blood sugar levels within two minutes. If the fasting blood sugar is below 80 mg / dl, diabetes is unlikely. From a value of 120 mg / dl, we speak of manifest diabetes mellitus. It makes sense to create a daily blood sugar profile. The values ​​are measured before meals and about an hour afterwards. The second value is below 120 mg / dl for healthy people and over 180 mg / dl for diabetics.

Laboratory examination of the urine

If the blood sugar level rises above 120 mg / dl, the so-called kidney threshold is exceeded and glucose has been shown to be excreted in the urine (glucosuria). If the urine stick test indicates that the kidney excretes ketone bodies (acetonuria), there is a risk of a hyperglycemic coma. With increasing damage to the kidney corpuscles, proteins from the blood enter the urine (microalbuminuria). This is a sign of damage to the kidney membrane. As a result, patients lose complex proteins, which leads to visible protein deficiency edema.

Oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT)

It should be noted that an oral glucose tolerance test is contraindicated if the fasting blood sugar level is already pathological. In addition, it should not be done in case of fever, after a heart attack or during menstruation. Taking various medications such as benzothiadiazines, corticosteroids or estrogens also increases the blood sugar level and falsifies the values ​​accordingly. Before the test, the patient consumes at least 150 grams of carbohydrates for three consecutive days, but remains sober for 12 hours before the test. After the fasting blood sugar is determined, they consume 75 grams of glucose in the form of a juice within five minutes. The blood sugar level is measured again two hours later. If this is now over 200 mg / dl, you have diabetes. Values ​​between 140 and 200 mg / dl testify to a pathological glucose intolerance.

Glycohemoglobins (HbA1)

The glycohemoglobin value makes it possible to make a statement about the blood sugar value within the last six to eight weeks and thus serves as a follow-up and to check the medicinal setting and cooperation of those affected. The venous blood drawn is thickened. Depending on the laboratory, the specified values ​​may vary. As a rule, the value is less than seven percent if the setting is good, and more than nine percent if the setting is poor.

Diabetic coma

The diabetic coma occurs with extremely high blood sugar levels and is also known as hyperglycemic shock. One reason can be too little insulin, for example due to low insulin doses or forgotten injections. A higher insulin requirement (e.g. due to dietary errors or infections) can lead to a diabetic coma.

A distinction is made between ketoacidotic and hypersomal coma. Both forms announce themselves beforehand with the same symptoms, which include loss of appetite, increased thirst (polydipsia), increased urine output (polyuria), vomiting, weakness, increased respiratory rate (tachypnea), decreased consciousness and shock symptoms (increased pulse rate and reduced blood pressure, rapid heart rate) become. Both forms of therapy are carried out in the intensive care unit, where insulin is supplied and the loss of fluid and electrolyte balance are balanced.

Ketoacidotic coma

The ketoacidotic coma predominantly affects type 1 diabetes and develops within hours or days. Many sufferers complain of abdominal pain and they have a conspicuously hard stomach. There is an increase in sugar with blood sugar values ​​of 300 to 700 mg / dl and fat loss with the associated production of ketone bodies. This creates a fruit-like smell of acetone in the air we breathe (so-called kiss-mouth breathing).

Hyperosmolar coma

The type 2 diabetic is usually affected by the hyperosmolar coma. It develops slowly with blood sugar levels of over 600 mg / dl. Due to the high fluid loss due to the increased excretion of urine, there is a loss of electrolytes and internal dehydration (desiccation). The skin of those affected is dry and warm.

Hypoglycemic shock (hypoglycaemia)

Hypoglycemic shock results in a low blood sugar level of usually less than 50 mg / dl as a result of an overdose of insulin or sufonylureas compared to carbohydrate intake. Alcohol consumption or heavy physical exertion can also trigger the state of shock. This develops suddenly and can occur within minutes. It is manifested by cravings, excessive sweating, restlessness and tremors. The pulse rate increases significantly while the blood pressure drops. In addition, it can lead to impaired consciousness up to loss of consciousness, as well as cramps and central breathing and circulatory disorders.

A diabetic should immediately be given glucose in the form of sugar (e.g. glucose, chocolate, apple juice, cola) if there is suspicion or signs of hypoglycaemia. In addition, the cause of the occurrence of hypoglycemia should always be looked for to prevent another shock.

Secondary diseases

Patients suffering from diabetes are often affected by complications. Here we show the most important complications of diabetes mellitus. These include:

  • Heart diseases such as CHD, PAD, heart failure, arteriosclerosis, heart attack, stroke,
  • Retinal damage (diabetic retinopathy),
  • Liver diseases such as fatty liver,
  • Nerve damage (neuropathy),
  • Digestive problems,
  • Kidney disease (diabetic nephropathy),
  • Circulation problems in the feet (diabetic foot syndrome),
  • Dementia diseases such as Alzheimer's,
  • Depression.

Diabetic macroangiopathy and microangiopathy

Diabetic macro- and microangiopathy is the term used to describe vascular damage caused by diabetes. Large blood vessel disease (macroangiopathy) leads to atherosclerosis, which increases the risk of CHD (coronary artery disease), stroke (apoplexy), and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Due to the nerve damage (polyneuropathy), the sensation of pain is reduced, so that the first warning symptoms for a heart attack such as angina pectoris or claudication are missing intermittently in a PAD. Diseases caused by damage to the small blood vessels (microangiopathy) include diabetic nephropathy, diabetic polyneuropathies, eye complications, diabetic foot syndrome and diabetic cardiomyopathy.

Diabetic nephropathy

Diabetic nephropathy (Kimmelstiel-Wilson glomerulosclerosis) causes an enlargement of the capillary coil (glomerolia) of the kidney. The glomerular capillary walls thicken and nodules form in the capillary tangle. An early increase in protein excretion in the urine (albuminuria) is shown by the urine laboratory values. The damage to the kidney often requires dialysis, which is also reflected in the fact that around 50 percent of dialysis patients are diabetic.

Diabetic polyneuropathy

Diabetic polyneuropathies are non-injury-related diseases of the peripheral nerves. They show up through sensory disorders, abnormal sensations, especially of the lower legs and feet, pain and possibly paralysis. Often there is also involvement of the vegetative nervous system with cardiac arrhythmias, blood pressure regulation disorders, dizziness, gastric emptying disorders, nausea, disorders of the bladder function, diarrhea (diarrhea) or constipation (constipation). Sexual dysfunction in men and women is also possible.

Eye diseases

Diabetic retinopathy refers to damage to the retina caused by new vessels and hemorrhages, as well as retinal detachment due to microangiopathy. In addition, lens opacification (cataract) and increased intraocular pressure (glaucoma) can be the result of diabetes.

Diabetic foot syndrome

About a quarter of diabetics develop diabetic foot syndrome. The interplay of macro- and microangiopathy and the associated susceptibility to infection can lead to ulcers with bone involvement and gangrene even with the smallest injuries and pressure points on the foot. In the initial stage, pressure relief from orthopedic shoes promises success, but in the final stage surgery or amputation is often essential. For this reason, the prophylaxis for the occurrence of an injury, for example through targeted medical foot care, must be observed.

Diabetic cardiomyopathy

The exact cause of diabetic cardiomyopathy, i.e. disease of the heart muscle, is still unclear. It is probably due to metabolic disorders and microangiopathy, i.e. damage to the small vessels.

Diabetes: treatment

Type 1 diabetics are insulin-dependent right from the start and, according to the current state of research, will remain so for life. The form of therapy differs depending on the severity of the disease. Regular follow-up is also advisable. In both types of diabetes, the goal of therapy is to maintain optimal performance and well-being through a normal blood sugar level. In type 2 diabetes, this is initially attempted through consistent diet and exercise therapy to reduce body weight. If this does not sufficiently lower the blood sugar level, then drug therapy is essential. In addition, the body's own insulin production usually decreases over the years, which also leads to a secondary insulin requirement in this case.

Diabetes: medication

Oral drug therapy is indicated in type 2 diabetics if, despite weight loss, the normalization of blood sugar levels fails. The production of the body's own insulin by the pancreas is a prerequisite for the implementation of oral drug therapy. The following active ingredients are available for oral therapy:

  • Sulfonylureas: Sulfonylureas (contained in Rp Gluborid® or Rp Euglucon®) are the most frequently used active ingredient in oral drug therapy. It stimulates the release of insulin from the pancreas and has a hypoglycemic effect. In the advanced stage of diabetes, a combination with insulin is possible. Side effects such as gastrointestinal complaints or allergies can occur. If taken incorrectly, hypoglycaemia may result.
  • Guar flours and acarbose: Guar flours (e.g. in Glucotard®) and enzyme inhibitors such as acarbose (e.g. in Rp Glucobay®) inhibit carbohydrate absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. This can prevent blood sugar spikes after meals. The two antidiabetic drugs are often used in type 1 diabetes to support insulin therapy. Initial side effects such as bloating and diarrhea are not uncommon.
  • Biguanides: Biguanides (metformin e.g. Rp Glucophage®) delay carbohydrate absorption from the intestine. At the same time, they promote the uptake of glucose into the muscles, inhibit the formation of new glucose, for example from lactic acid in the liver, and facilitate weight loss because they reduce appetite. However, due to the risk of blood changes and metabolic acidosis due to increased lactate in the blood, they are only prescribed in individual cases.

Insulin therapy

Insulin therapy is indicated for type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes if diet, exercise therapy and oral antidiabetic medication are not sufficient.

It can also be used at short notice, for example in larger operations for people with diabetes and in diabetic coma. In the meantime, over 90 percent of all diabetics are treated with genetically produced human insulin. Patients who have been well adjusted with pork or beef insulin for a long time will no longer be converted.

The insulin is given by syringe. Those affected or the nursing staff usually inject alternately into the subcutaneous fat (subcutaneous) of the abdomen or thigh as part of a permanent prescription. There are single-use insulin syringes or so-called insulin pens that can be used to adjust the dosage at the push of a button. Rarely, type 1 diabetes uses insulin pumps that continuously deliver insulin through a catheter located in the subcutaneous fat. The dosage is given in international units (IU). A distinction is made between short-acting insulins, delayed insulins, long-term insulins and mixed insulins:

  • Short-acting insulins: They are used in acute metabolic disorders and in intensified conventional insulin therapy. They take effect after 15 to 30 minutes and reach their peak after one or two hours. After four to six hours, there is no longer any effect.
  • Long-term insulin: Long-term insulins are used for intensified insulin therapy. Their action time only starts after three to four hours and lasts up to 28 hours.
  • Mixed insulin: Mixed insulins are a mixture of normal and delay insulins. They are available in different mixing ratios. The main area of ​​application is conventional insulin therapy.
  • Delay insulin: Intermediate insulins (such as Insulman Basal, Humininsulin Basal) are used in older patients with a stable metabolic state and as a component of mixed insulins. They have a duration of action of 12 to 18 hours, which begins after about 30 to 45 minutes. The maximum is reached after about four to eight hours.

Diet for diabetes

In diabetes treatment, the diet is the basis of successful treatment. It essentially corresponds to a balanced whole food diet. The basis of the diet is the observance of carbohydrate and fat intake. At the same time, the energy and nutrient requirements, which depend on age, gender, occupation and leisure activities, should be covered. It is essential for type 1 diabetics to know the exact amount of carbohydrates in individual foods. For type 2 diabetes, the calorie content of the food is in the foreground of the diet.

Basically, food intake should be divided into six to seven smaller meals instead of three main meals. Percentage of the food should be composed of 45 to 60 percent carbohydrates, less than 35 percent fats and ten to 20 percent protein. Cheese, sausage and meat should only be ingested to a small extent. The diet should be low in monosaccharides (white flour, sugar) and polysaccharides (potatoes, whole grains, rice) should be preferred instead.

Grape sugar, sucrose and honey are to be removed from the menu. Alternatively, sugar substitutes such as fructose, lactose, sorbitol or xylitol should be used. Mineral water and unsweetened herbal teas are suitable as drinks. In addition, alcohol consumption should be less than 20 grams a day. Diabetic beer and dry wines are allowed.

Nutritional therapy

Basically, the guidelines apply to a healthy diet adapted to the actual calorie needs. It is recommended to eat carbohydrates with a high fiber content, such as vegetables, Jerusalem artichokes, potatoes, fruits, whole grains and raw foods. Dietary fiber ensures that carbohydrates are only released into the intestine with a delay. As a result, the blood sugar level remains constant and a rapid rise in blood sugar during meals can be prevented. Broccoli and spinach in particular, but also cucumber and grapefruit are said to have a beneficial effect on the metabolic disorder.

White flour products, husked rice and finished products should be avoided due to the refined carbohydrates it contains. Sugar and sugary foods are absolutely prohibited. Because sweetener increases the craving for sweet foods, it should be used with care. Food with many unsaturated fatty acids, such as sausage or meat, should only be consumed in moderation. Instead of animal fats, high-quality vegetable oils should be preferred. A drinking cure with medicinal waters containing sulfate or magnesium can be helpful to stimulate the metabolism.

Mediterranean diet for diabetes

According to a study by the German Institute for Nutritional Research (DIfE), the Mediterranean diet or Mediterranean diet is highly recommended for diabetes. The diet of the Mediterranean region serves as a template. A key aspect is the absence of high-fat sausages, fatty cheeses and sweets. Instead, the diet includes lots of vegetables and fruits, fish, a little meat (mostly poultry), olive oil, nuts, legumes, garlic, and other fresh herbs, whole grain bread, and occasionally some red wine.

Diabetes: naturopathy

In the case of type 1 diabetes mellitus, it is an autoimmune disease against the insulin-producing pancreatic cells. Accordingly, naturopathic therapy makes little sense. However, type 2 can be positively influenced with therapies and agents from the naturopathic spectrum.

[GList slug = ”10 tips for diabetes”]

Okay therapy

Regular physical exercise such as walking, cycling or swimming is important for people with diabetes. This can improve glucose tolerance and reduce excess weight. If you are overweight, a gentle weight reduction has an advantageous effect on the normalization of blood sugar levels. Since stress can lead to considerable fluctuations in blood sugar, it should be switched off as far as possible. Sufficient sleep and adherence to a regular daily routine serve as ordering factors. Nicotine and alcohol should be avoided.

Orthomolecular therapy

Zinc is very important for diabetics because it is biochemically and functionally closely related to insulin: as a zinc-insulin complex, insulin is stored in the pancreas. This complex is broken down when insulin is released. Many diabetics assume that there is a disturbance in this process and often a reduced zinc plasma level as a result of the excretion of zinc in the urine. In this case, orthomolecular medicine recommends the administration of zinc, which can increase insulin intensity and regulate insulin breakdown. Hyperglycaemia and an impaired fat metabolism put many people with diabetes under considerable oxidative stress. Antioxidant vitamins such as vitamin C or vitamin E can counteract this.

Another suitable dietary supplement for diabetes is brewer's yeast, which increases the glucose tolerance due to the chromium content (the glucose tolerance factor contains chromium) and increases the effect of the insulin. To reduce the risk of nerve damage, the administration of B vitamins is advisable. Bei diabetischen Neuropathien wird α-Liponsäure empfohlen.

Phytotherapie Diabetes

Verschiedene Heilpflanzen wirken sich positiv auf den Zuckerstoffwechsel aus und stabilisieren den Blutzuckerspiegel. Zu ihnen zählen beispielsweise:

  • Löwenzahn (Taraxacum officinale), der entgiftend wirkt und den Leberstoffwechsel harmonisiert. Da die Leber neben der Bauchspeicheldrüse das zentrale Organ für die Regulation des Zuckerhaushaltes ist, wirkt sich die Stärkung der Leber positiv aus.
  • Wegwarte (Cichorium intybus) reguliert die Tätigkeit der Oberbauchorgane Milz, Bauchspeicheldrüse und Leber und kann so ebenfalls ausgleichend auf Blutzuckerschwankungen wirken,
  • Tausendgüldenkraut (Centaurium erythraea) zeigt einen ähnlichen Effekt.
  • Artischocke (Cynara scolymus) ist hervorragend zur Senkung erhöhter Blutzuckerwerte geeignet und reguliert in der Leber die Umwandlung von Fett in Zucker.
  • Wild garlic (Allium ursinum) kann Ablagerungen an der Gefäßinnenwand abbauen und den Blutdurchfluss verbessern.

Weiterhin wird der Zimtrinde eine günstige Wirkung bei Diabetes mellitus Typ 2 zugesprochen, was bei einer Tagesdosis von ein bis sechs Gramm in einer Studie nachgewiesen werden konnte.

Stevia

Aus der Naturheilkunde sind schon lange Stimmen zu hören, die den vermehrten Einsatz der Stevia-Pflanze als Süßungsmittel verlangen. Die Blätter der aus Südamerika stammenden Pflanze, können über das dreißigfache des Rohrzuckers bieten. Eine Eigenschaft, die die Indianer Südamerikas schon seit Jahrhunderten nutzen. Für Diabetiker wäre das Honigkraut, wie die Pflanze auch genannt wird, gut, weil keine Erhöhung des Blutzuckerspiegels erfolgen würde. Stevia Rebaudiana soll die unangenehmen Nebenerscheinungen der Zuckeraufnahme wie Karies und zunehmendes Gewicht vermeiden und sogar den Blutzucker senken können. In der Naturheilkunde wird Stevia deswegen bisher schon bei Bluthochdruck und Sodbrennen verwendet.

Osteopathie und Diabetes

Eine Behandlung mit den Händen wirkt bei einem Diabetes auf Betroffene und Außenstehende selbst meist erst einmal befremdlich und undenkbar. Aber bei noch funktionstüchtigen Arealen in der Bauchspeicheldrüse kann eine mechanische Intervention eine unterstützende Maßnahme sein. Schon 1906 beschrieb der Osteopath Marion Edward Clark in seinem Buch „ Angewandte Anatomie“ den Zusammenhang zwischen Funktionsstörungen des Pankreas und dem sechsten, siebten und achten Brustwirbel, sowie den dazugehörigen Rippen. Daneben sollen Funktionsstörungen der Gallenblase und des Vagusnerven Einfluss auf die Funktion der Bauchspeicheldrüse nehmen.

Der Begründer der Osteopathie, Andrew Taylor Still, beschrieb in seinem Buch „Forschung und Praxis“ vier Jahre später als Clark, dass Diabetes und Fettleibigkeit „Wirkungen von schweren Subluxationen in der Gegend des ersten, zweiten, dritten und vierten Brustwirkelkörpers“ seien. Diese würden aus der mechanischen Sicht der Osteopathie dafür sorgen, dass der fünfte und sechste Nerv, der zwischen den Rippen verläuft, irritiert werde. Er riet dazu, in diesem Bereich „die Empfindung, die Bewegung und die Ernährung in Betracht“ zu ziehen. Weiterhin riet er unter anderem, „sanft den Magen und die Eingeweide von der rechten auf die linke Seite“ zu ziehen.

Homöopathie bei Diabetes

Auch wenn die Wirksamkeit der Homöopathie aus wissenschaftlicher Sicht als umstritten gilt, vertrauen einige Diabetikerinnen und Diabetiker auf homöopathische Mittel als Unterstützung. Folgende Konstitutionsmittel können zur Behandlung angezeigt sein: Acidum phosphoricum, Carcinosinum, Helonias, Lac Defloratum, Lycopodium, Lycopus, Phosphorus, Plumbum, Sulfur, Tarantula. Komplexmittel zur Unterstützung enthalten meist Syzygium jambolanum (eine bewährte Indikation bei Diabetes melitus), Kreosotum (bei Folgezuständen wie Juckreiz oder Gangrän), Acidum phosphoricum (bei nervösen Erschöpfungszuständen oder Gedächtnisschwäche) oder Natrium sulfuricum (bei Störungen von Leber und Pankreas oder depressiver Verstimmung). (vb, js)

Author and source information

This text corresponds to the specifications of the medical literature, medical guidelines and current studies and has been checked by medical doctors.

Graduate editor (FH) Volker Blasek

Swell:

  • Lukas Schwingshackl, Anna Chaimani, Georg Hoffmann, u.a.: A network meta-analysis on the comparative efficacy of different dietary approaches on glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, European Journal of Epidemiology, 2018, Volume 33, Issue 2, link.springer.com
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  • Robert Koch-Institut (RKI): Diabetes Surveillance – Antworten auf häufig gestellte Fragen (FAQ) (Abruf: 11.09.2019), rki.de
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  • Deutsche Diabetes Gesellschaft (DDG): S2k-Leitlinie Diagnostik, Therapie und Verlaufskontrolle des Diabetes mellitus im Alter, 2018, deutsche-diabetes-gesellschaft.de
  • NVL-Programm von BÄK, KBV, AWMF: S3 Nationale Versorgungsleitlinie Typ-2-Diabetes: Therapie, Stand: November 2013, Leitlinien-Detailansicht
  • Diagnostik, Therapie und Verlaufskontrolle des Diabetes mellitus im Kindes- und Jugendalter, S3-Leitlinie der DDG und AGPD, 2015, deutsche-diabetes-gesellschaft.de
  • Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt (GmbH): Diagnostik, Seltene Formen – „Typ-3-Diabetes“ 2016, diabetesinformationsdienst-muenchen.de
  • American Diabetes Association Diabetes Care Jan. 2010: Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus (Abruf: 11.09.2019), care.diabetesjournals.org

ICD-Codes für diese Krankheit:E10-E14, O24ICD-Codes sind international gültige Verschlüsselungen für medizinische Diagnosen. You can find yourself e.g. in doctor's letters or on disability certificates.


Video: Type 2 diabetes symptoms in men and women. early diabetes signs (August 2022).